Listed below are some Hebrewprayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. Most prayers and blessings can be found in the Siddur, or prayer book. This article addresses Jewish liturgical blessings, which generally begin with the formula:
In the transliterations below, ' is used to refer to the sh'vah, which is similar/equivalent to ə; a mid-word aleph, a glottal stop; and a mid-word ayin, a voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ similar/equivalent to Arabic ع. Whenever ` is used, it refers to ayin whether word-initial, medial, or final. 'H/h' are used to represent both he, an English h sound as in "hat"; and ḥes, a voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ equivalent to Arabic ح. Whenever 'ḥ' is used, it refers to ḥet. Resh is represented by an 'r,' though it's equivalent to Spanish 'r,' Spanish 'rr,' or French 'r,' depending on one's dialect. In all other regards, transliterations are according to the modern Hebrew pronunciation, based on the Sephardi tradition.
Modeh Ani is a short prayer recited first thing after waking in the morning. Thanking God for all he does.
Thanking God for restoring the soul in the morning. Said following washing the hands and Asher Yatzar blessings.
Blessings over the Torah
Thanking God for giving us the Torah and a blessing on the Torah that will be learned over the course of the day. Followed by some short passages from Torah and the Mishnah (in some customs, followed immediate by Seder Korbanot, which is also a selection of Torah passages).
Blessings thanking God for most of the basic functions of our lives (sight, clothes, movement etc.)
Recounting the order of the day in the Temple service. Includes the description of the daily sacrifice from the Book of Numbers and chapter 5 of Zevachim that contains a list of all the types of sacrifices that were given.
13 midot of Rabi Yishmael
ברייתא דרבי ישמעאל
A passage of learning from the Oral Law. It is a list of the 13 principles that Rabi Yishmael would use to interpret the Torah.
Psalm 30. Recited in the Eastern Ashkenazic rite at the beginning of Pesukei Dezimra. In the Western Ashkenazic rite, as well as according to the custom of the Vilna Gaon, it is not recited in Pesukei D'Zimra at all.
The Shema prayers is said every day in Shacharit and Maariv. There are always two blessings before the Shema, but after the Shema in the day there is only one blessing, and at night there are two (or three in some communities).
The third blessing recited following the Shema during Maariv. This blessing is only said by some communities, mostly outside of Israel. It is omitted in the vast majority of communities in Israel, and it is not said today by anyone on Shabbat or Yom Tov, although historically it was said in some communities on the Sabbath.
The "standing [prayer]", also known as the Shemoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen"), consisting of 19 strophes on weekdays and seven on Sabbath days and 9 on Rosh haShana Mussaf. It is the essential component of Jewish services, and is the only service that the Talmud calls prayer. It is said three times a day (four times on Sabbaths and holidays, and five times on Yom Kippur).
The source for the Amida is either as a parallel to the sacrifices in the Temple, or in honor of the Jewish forefathers.
The prayer is divided into 3 sections, blessings of praise for God, requests for our needs (or exalting the holiness of the day for Shabbat and Yom Tov) and finally blessings of thanksgiving.
On a regular weekday there are 13 blessings that ask God for our needs. A small number of rabbis, such as David Bar-Hayim based on fragments from the Cairo Geniza say only 12 blessings here.
On fast days in the times of the Talmud there were a number of additional blessings, and in communities today a 14th blessing is added to the Chazzan's repetition on fast days.
Asking for wisdom and understanding.
Asking God to help us return to the Torah way of life.
Asking for God's forgiveness.
Asking for God to rescue the Jewish people from our travails. On fast days during the repetition of the Amida, Aneinu is said here.
Asking for good health.
Asking for a blessing for the produce of the earth. We also ask for the rain needed to sustain life. Broadly also asking for income. During times of drought a special prayer for rain is added here.
Asking God to bring the Jews back from the Exile into Israel.
Asking God to judge us justly and to restore the judges to Israel.
Asking to destroy the heretical sects and informers. This blessing was a later addition to the Amida, and is the 19 blessing.
Asking God to help and support righteous people.
Asking to have Jerusalem rebuilt and returned to its former glory. On Tisha B'av the Nachem prayer is added here.
Malchut bet David
מלכות בית דוד
Asking for the monarchy to be reinstated and for David's descendants to become the kings. In the Palestinian tradition, this blessing was merged with the previous one to maintain 18 blessings.
Asking God to answer our prayers. Any additional requests can be added in this blessing. On fast days Aneinu is added here in the silent prayer.
On Shabbat and Yom Tov there is only a single blessing.
Describing the holiness of the particular day. In Mussaf it also describes the sacrifice that was brought in the Temple on that day.
During Mussaf of Rosh HaShana there are 3 blessings in the middle, each built around 10 verses from the Tanach around a particular theme.
Describing how God was made king of the world on this day.
Mentioning the times that God has promised to remember the people of Israel.
Describing various times and occasions that the Shofar was blown.
The "Priestly Blessing," recited by the Kohanim every day in Israel before the blessing for peace in Shacharit (and Mussaf on days with Mussaf). Outside of Israel, Ashkenazim and some Sephardim recite it only on Yom Tov, while other Sephardim recite it on Shabbat and Yom Tov or every day. Even in places where they do not recite it, the chazzan recites a mini version commemorating its recitation ('Eloheinu ve-Elohei avoteinu barkheinu ...') at any time when it could be recited (Shacharit, Mussaf, and on fast days at Mincha).
A prayer recited in the synagogue at the beginning of the evening service on Yom Kippur (יום כיפור), the Day of Atonement. It is a declaration of absolution from vows taken, to free the congregants from guilt due to unfulfilled vows during the previous (and coming) year.
Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kideshanu be'mitzvotav ve'ratza banu, ve'shabbat kodsho be'ahava u've'ratzon hinchilanu, zikaron le'ma'ase vereshit. Ki hu yom techila le'mik'raei kodesh, zecher li'yziat mitzrayim. Ki vanu vacharta ve'otanu kidashta mi'kol ha'amim, ve'shabbat kodshecha be'ahava u've'ratzon hinchaltanu. Barukh ata Adonai mekadesh ha'shabbat.
Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who sanctified us with His commandments, and hoped for us, and with love and intent invested us with His sacred Sabbath, as a memorial to the deed of Creation. It is the first among the holy festivals, commemorating the exodus from Egypt. For You chose us, and sanctified us, out of all nations, and with love and intent You invested us with Your Holy Sabbath. Blessed are You, Adonai, Sanctifier of the Sabbath.
Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, ha'mavdil bein kodesh l'hol, bein or l'hoshekh, bein yisra'el la'amim, bein yom ha'sh'vi'i l'sheshet y'mei ha'ma'a'se. Barukh ata Adonai, ha'mavdil bein kodesh l'hol.
Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who distinguishes between the sacred and the secular, between light and dark, between Israel and the nations, between the seventh day and the six days of labor. Blessed are You, LORD, Who distinguishes between the sacred and the secular.
Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al mitzvat t'filin Barukh shem k'vod malkhuto l'olam va'ed
Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the commandment of tefillin. Blessed is the Name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever.
The hands are ritually washed before partaking of certain staples of life.
In the Ashkenazic tradition and some Sephardic and other communities, it is done before eating bread. In some Sephardic rites and in the German community originating in Frankfurt it is done before drinking wine and or eating bread, alone or with the wine (such as would be done before a Sabbath or festive meal) at which time this blessing is said:
After washing but before drying the hands, the following blessing below is said.